性/別暴力 Gender-based Violence

性/別暴力是指任何基於性別刻板印象及不平等的性別結構,而所產生的種種暴力行為。性/別暴力的形式非常廣泛,當中包括肢體傷害、精神威脅、性暴力、以及經濟虐待等等。性/別暴力既有可能出現在公共領域,也可能出現於私密的生活當中,例如不同形式的家庭暴力以及親密關係間的伴侶暴力。而受不同的社會文化影響,某些與傳統習俗有關的行為也可能涉及性別暴力,例如纏足。

Gender-based Violence (GBV) is the general term used to capture violence that occurs as a result of the normative role expectations associated with each gender, along with the unequal power relationships underlying the gender structure, within the context of a specific society. GBV includes, but is not limited to, Domestic Violence by an intra family members; Intimate Partner Violence, including physical and psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse; Sexual Violence, including rape, sexual harassment and forced pregnancies; Traditional Harmful Practices, such as foot binding.



性/別刻板印象 Gender Stereotype

性/別刻板印象是指社會對於「女性」和「男性」存在著有一套普遍、固態的想像與看法。針對傳統上只有男或女的二元分法下的兩性差異,主流社會認定「女性」和「男性」擁有不同的個性及特質,因此斷定兩性有著各自適合充當的社會角色與功能,並且建構出相應的社會期望與規範。植根於一時一地的文化信仰與傳統觀念,性/別刻板印象影響及個人的自我認知、人際關係的建立、甚至社會的制度配置,從而再進一步鞏固社會大眾對於「女性」和「男性」的不同態度、期望、甚或偏見。刻板印象簡化人們的認知過程,可能會為社會的運作帶來正面的效果,但同時,過分簡化、僵化的性/別刻板印象會限制了「女性」和「男性」的個人發展、流動機會、以至生涯規劃,更會有為不同性別的人士帶來嚴重的負面的影響,例如工作間的性別歧視。

Gender Stereotype refers to the generalized views or preconceptions about attributes or characteristics, or the roles that are or ought to be possessed by, or performed by women and men. These widely held beliefs and generalisations usually originate from local culture and traditions but in the meantime, are thereby re-affirmed and reinforced, through its influences on individuals’ self-perception, attitudes to interpersonal relationship as well as the context of institutional settings. Despite it might have positive connotations to society, gender stereotyping is an overgeneralization of characteristics, differences and attributes of a certain group based on their gender. It is harmful when it limits people of all genders’ capacity to develop their personal abilities, pursue their professional careers and make choices about their lives, such as gender discrimination in the workplace.


身體正向 Body Positivity

身體自愛或身體正向是一場涉及身體政治的社會運動。身體正向強調每個人均擁有正面看待自己身體的權利。不論高矮肥瘦、強弱美醜,身體正向運動鼓勵人們接納和擁抱自己的身體,拒絕盲從主流社會的單一審美標準。隨著運動的發展,身體正向運動由最初著力提倡以自信自愛的態度擁抱身體的一切、對抗社會針對身體的各種規範與鞭撻,到近年來,更有倡導者進一步提出每個個人均應擁有自由塑造及展示身體,以表達自我的權利(例如:解放乳頭運動)。

Body Positivity (or Body Positive Movement) is a social movement rooted in the belief that all human beings should have a positive body image while challenging the ways in which society presents and views the physical body. At the beginning, advocates of body positivity were more or less promoting a right to be happy with one’s body, no matter the form, size, or appearance it is (e.g. chubby or slim, tall or short, white or black). Recent years, the movement has been extending its claims to the right to modify and/or express one’s body in positive experiences of one’s personalities (e.g. “Free the Nipple” campaign).


男性凝視 Male Gaze

「男性凝視」泛指一種以異性戀男性角度出發的觀看方式。在「男性凝視」的呈現中,男性總是充當觀看者的角色,而女性則被置於被觀看的位置,被物化成為異性戀男性的慾望對象。有別於一般的「觀看」,「凝視」更加強調性別背後的權力關係。由於性別的不平等充斥於社會的每個角落,男性總是觀看而女性總是被觀看的情況伸展至生活的各個場景。「男性凝視」於是等同一種積極的「監視」,被觀看的女性如同活於男性的全面監控之中。「男性凝視」最常見的兩個生活例子,包括現實生活中的日常交際(例如:對女性吹口哨或上下打量),以及不同媒體中的影像呈現(例如:以特寫鏡頭或窺視角度拍攝女性的身體部位)。

Male Gaze refers to the acts of viewing and depicting women from a masculine, heterosexual perspective, through which women are positioned as a sexualized object of male desire in representation. As a way of seeing, the word ‘Gaze’ also sheds light on the asymmetric power relationship between women and men in society that women, as passive-object, are always subject to the surveillance of men, as active-viewer, in all aspects of social setting indeed. “Male Gaze” plays out most obviously in two main areas in our daily lives: actual interpersonal and social encounters (e.g. catcalls and “checking out”) and visual representations within the media (e.g. close-up shot on women’s body part, the use of voyeuristic camera angles).


敵意型/親善型性別歧視 Hostile Sexism & Benevolent Sexism

一般而言,性別主義或性別歧視泛指基於性別差異而對TA*人產生的偏見、歧視以至差別對待,當中尤以針對女性的性別歧視最廣為人認識。針對不同形態的性別主義,「敵意型性別歧視」與「親善型性別歧視」被用以命名其中兩種常見的歧視情況。「敵意型性別歧視」泛指那些以直接、明顯的方式呈現的歧視行為,赤裸地表露對女性的厭惡情緒及貶抑態度(例子:「女生就是弱於男生!」)。至於「親善型性別歧視」,則往往不會像敵意型歧視者般直接冒犯女性,甚至會明確反對敵意型歧視的言行。然而,親善型歧視者仍會遵從既有的性別框架與角色定型,給予女性帶有差別的待遇和評價(例子:「保護柔弱的女生是男生的天職!」)。縱使「親善型性別歧視」的行為廣被女性及男性所接受及歡迎,但相關的行為仍然不利於促進性別多元、性別平等。不論「敵意型」還是「親善型」,兩者同樣不會挑戰現有的性別不平權狀況,甚至複製和加固既有性別定型與偏見,延續不公。
*近年來,不少推動性別多元的倡導者提出以「TA」代替「他」或「她」的使用,希望借此提醒公眾言語文字的既有性別含意與日常規範,同時挑戰性別二元的框架,展現對於多元性別的尊重。

Initially, Sexism is the prejudice or discrimination based on a person’s sex or gender, especially against women and girls. Regarding the variance in sexism, the terms Hostile Sexism and Benevolent Sexism are later coined to characterize two major forms of sexism in nowadays society. The former refers to the conventional expression of sexism in public discourse, which is characterized by its overtly negative nature that emphasizes women’s inferiority to men (e.g. “Women are simply less competent than men”). The latter refers to a more indirect way of expressing sexism, which is characterized by its ostensibly flattering and friendly nature yet subtle expression echoing male domination and female subordination (e.g. “Women are pure, fragile flowers in need of men’s protection”). Although Benevolent Sexism is often more attractive to women and men than Hostile Sexism, the former is potentially equally harmful as the latter and what’s more, both play a crucial role in reinforcing traditional gender roles and status imbalances.
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